Instead of using an electronic
peltier cooler that requires a hefty battery and isn't very efficient, I
decided to try building a box that would use dry ice instead. The
advantages of using dry ice over a peltier cooler is that it packs a
serious punch of cold holding 246 BTU per pound. Compare that to about 15
BTU per hour for a 45 watt peltier cooler. No electricity is needed in the
field and no additional wires are needed to the camera. Dry ice provides
significant cooling potential if it can be tamed. Dry
ice is very, very cold (-110F (-78C)).
Below is a picture of my old
box with a small chunk of dry ice left inside it. It was able to
drop the temperature inside the box from +73F (23C) down to -34F (-37C) in
about 8 minutes. My peltier cooled box could never do that.
The problem is that -34F (-37C) is actually too cold and the dry ice does
not last that long with such exposure. I had to design a box that
would permit the cold of the dry ice to slowly leak into the camera and
maintain a cool temperature without the shock or extreme cold inherent
with dry ice.
The goal for my cooler
is to be able to drop the camera temperature at least 50F (42C) from ambient
in less than an hour and maintain that temperature for 8 hours or
longer. Due to the nature of dry ice two
separate chambers are necessary for the box to work as intended. One
chamber for the dry ice and the other for the camera. The camera
chamber needs to be able to transfer the cold around the camera as quickly
and efficiently as possible to speed the cooling process and thus copper
is the ideal material. It can't however be directly connected to the
dry ice chamber or it would cool too fast possibly damaging the camera and
use up the reservoir of dry ice too quickly.
As you can see below I added
some reflective bubble wrap to the dry ice chamber to help insulate a bit
more. What you can't see in this picture is the 2mm thick hobby foam
I hot glued to the back of the copper box to slow the heat transfer from
the dry ice chamber to the camera chamber.
Here is the box
assembled. Notice the two chambers.
Here is my box loaded with dry ice for it's virgin feasibility test.
I didn't put my camera in the box because I didn't know how much of a
thermal shock this design would produce and I didn't want to risk my
Here are the results of the
first 3 hours of my first test. It started at 72F (22C) with about a
pound and a half of dry ice. In 30 minutes it was at 1.2F
(-17C)! It reached equilibrium within an hour and held a pretty
steady -10F (-23C) for the next 2 hours. I went to sleep and when I
checked it in the morning it was still at -1.1F (-18C) after a total time
of 8 hours.
This is what the ice looked
like after 8 hours. About 1/3rd of the dry ice was still
there! This was very encouraging! On this picture you can see
the 2mm hobby foam I used to partially insulate between the two chambers.
After this first feasibility test I'm now confident that my camera won't
be damaged by the cold. Time to install the camera. Here are
some shots with the camera installed in the box.
Here you can see the
circulation fan. This should help speed the cooling of the camera by
circulating the air within the box.
Keep checking back as I hope
to run another test with the camera in the next few days. How cold
will the camera get? How long can it stay that cold? Inquiring
minds want to know.
I was only able to do a test
for an hour and fifteen minutes due to work and family commitments but the
results with the camera installed look encouraging. The
results were about as I would predict. Having to cool the mass of the
camera and the extra cold loss through the camera adapter opening likely
accounts for most of the difference between with and without the camera in
I still achieved quite acceptable
results. In reality a delta of 80F is probably too much and would
introduce significant frosting / dewing issues even here in Arizona. 50F
was my goal and I'm really close with this box.
What I wasn't able to test was the
duration the box remained cold and the true equilibrium point. That will
have to wait for another test and another supply of dry ice. I have
discovered that conventional means of storing the ice (an ordinary
beverage cooler) is totally inadequate. I'm going to build a super
insulated box with 2" thick foam in multiple layers where needed. I
would like to be able to buy dry ice and store it for a week or so if
Here is a chart showing the performance
of my new box with and without the camera.
I was able to run a more
complete test. I decided to install the temperature probe inside the
battery compartment of the camera to more closely approximate the actual
temperature of the CMOS chip of the camera. After an initial test
this way I was not happy with the speed of the cooling and so removed
1/3rd of the 2mm hobby foam insulation exposing 1/3rd of the back of the
copper box to the dry ice directly. This seemed to do the
trick. I also got a diet scale and measured the weight of the box,
the box with the camera and the box with the camera filled with dry
The weight of the box alone
is: 627 g (1 lb 6 oz)
The weight of the box with the camera (Canon 350xt) is: 1165 g (2 lb 9 oz)
The weight of the box with camera and a good chunck of dry ice (70% full)
is: 1700 g (3lb 11 oz)
For this test I measured not
only the temperature inside the camera, but the weight of the box as the
dry ice sublimated. The chart below shows the drop in
temperature with the red line over time and the loss of dry ice in grams
with the blue line over the same time.
The ambient temperature was
71F and the camera stabilized at about 17F after 2 hours (a true delta of
about 53F). This test is actually skewed slightly due to the camera
being at 66F (point zero on the chart above) when the test was started due
to it being cool still from an earlier aborted test. So the chart
above is quite conservative.
The nice thing about measuring
the loss of the dry ice over time, it makes it possible to estimate how
long the ice would last. Of course as the dry ice disappears there
is less mass to cool and so one would expect the temperature to slowly
rise over time as the ice sublimated. I don't see this as a major
problem as from my tests I'm confident it will last long enough and be
stable enough for most of a nights worth of imaging.
Given the results of this
test the dry ice should last about 11 hours. Being conservative I
suspect it would be useful for 5 - 8 hours. After that it would be
necessary to refill the reservoir of dry ice for maximum
effectiveness. This would mean that at worst it would be necessary
to refill the reservoir twice in a night.